Apple & pear resources

AHDB Horticulture funded an extensive programme of research on many aspects of commercial apple & pear production. The available reports and resources are listed below. 


Review of potential control strategies for major pests in organic apple and pear production, with application in IPM orchards

Video: Webinar - Tackling key pests in UK horticulture


Research project TF 218: Increasing hoverfly populations in apple orchards for control of apple aphids

Mammal pests

Managing rabbit problems associated with horticulture

Rodent control on farms


Research project TF 204: Improving codling moth spray timing

Research project TF 189: Optimum treatment timing to reduce overwintering codling moth populations

Pear sucker

Developing integrated management controls for pear sucker

Research project TF 181: Exploiting semiochemicals, conservation biocontrol and selective physical controls in integrated management of pear sucker


The Forest Bug (Pentatoma Rufipes)


Anthonomus spilotus – a new pest of pears in the spring

Research project TF 209: Feasibility of developing a semiochemical based monitoring trap for the apple fruit rhynchites


A review of the alternative control strategies for disease in organic apple and pear production


Research project TF 216: Evaluation of products for control of Nectria galligena on apples

Research project TF 217: Improving the management of bacterial canker in stone fruits

Research project TF 226: Systemic infection and symptom expression of Neonectria ditissima in relation to endophytes conditioned by environmental stresses


Research project TF 183: Apples and Pears - The use of Biological Control, Plant Health Promoters and copper to Effect Control of Fireblight (Erwinia amylovora)

Research project TF 203: Studies on Fusarium species causing core rots and storage rots of apple

Powdery mildew

Research project TF 195: Sensitivity of apple powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) populations to triazole and strobilurin fungicides


Research project TF 191: The effect of ethylene control strategies on the development of rotting in Bramley's Seedling apples


Research project TF 190: An investigation of any correlation in the sensitivity of scab isolates to different fungicides

Research project TF 202: Monitoring scab population for fungicide insensitivities and races


Beneficial insects

A review: Impacts of wildflower interventions on beneficial insects in fruit crops

Earwig-friendly spray programmes in apple and pear crops

Research project TF 196: effects of commonly used insecticides on earwigs

Research project TF 220: Further development of earwig-safe spray programmes for apple and pear orchards


Research project TF 172a: Evaluation and development of new rootstocks for apples - on-going work on existing plantings

Research project TF 172b: Evaluation and development of new rootstocks for apples and pears - new work on new plantings

Research project TF 182 & 182a: East Malling Rootstock Club

Research project TF 211: Resources for future breeding of apple utilising genome-wide selection

Research project TF 212: Generation of genomic resources for apple rootstocks

Research project TF 224: East Malling Rootstock Club

Crop management

The use of root pruning in apples and pears

Research project TF 177: Effects of applied composted green waste mulch on cropping of Braeburn and Cox

Research project TF 197: Determining the cost benefit of a range of thinning strategies for apple

Research project TF 197a: Continuation of previous work (TF 197) to determine the cost benefit of a range of thinning strategies for apple

Research project TF 206: Comparison of planting material for fruit wall orchard systems for apple

Research project TF 207: Determination of the optimum pruning time for fruit wall orchard systems for Gala apple

Research project TF 215: Tree Fruit Thinning Review

Food safety

Video: Webinar - Microbials, managing risk in the production of fresh produce

Video: Webinar - Managing risk in the production of uk fresh produce

Video: Webinar - Disinfecting irrigation water for use on fresh produce

Video: Webinar - Microbials, keeping it clean


Video: Harvesting quality apples and pears - a guide for pickers

Video: Harvesting Quality Apples and Pears - a guide for supervisors and tractor drivers

Integrated pest management

Review of potential control strategies for major pests in organic apple and pear production, with application in IPM orchards

Research project TF 223: Improving integrated pest and disease management in Tree Fruit


Establishing a resilient water supply

Protecting the water supply for your crops

Research project TF/PO 001: FERTINNOWA - Sustainable Water use in Fertigated crops

Research project TF 198: Water and fertiliser saving strategies to improve fruit quality and sustainability of pear production

Research project TF 210: Deriving irrigation set points of high-intensity apple and sweet cherry orchards

Labour and skills

Edible horticulture skills survey

Video: Webinar - Operating in a reduced labour market

Video: Webinar - Using LEAN techniques to improve labour efficiency in horticulture

Video: Webinar - Using your time effectively

Nutrient management

Introduction to fertigation

RB209 Section 7 Fruit, vines and hops

Research project TF 200: Novel calcium products to increase fruit calcium, increasing storage potential

Research project TF 214: Improving nitrogen use efficiency, sustainability and fruit quality in high-density apple orchards


Research project TF 222: Desk study looking at the relationship between Dry Matter Content of apples and fruit quality

Research project TF 213: Extend the marketing period of Gala apples


The zero residue management system for apples


GREATsoils: Green manures improve soil health in apple orchards

Measuring soil nutrients, pH and organic matter

Video: Soil health for horticulture - a GREATsoils webinar

Video: GREATsoils - the worm count test

Video: Webinar - Soil health improvement – Cover crops and organic amendments


A review of the literature of the Neofabraea species complex, causative agents of Gloeosporium rot in stored apple

Research project TF 179: Pear - The effect of soil moisture on fruit storage quality

Research project TF 192: Modulating the storage temperature for Cox apples for improved quality and control of rotting

Research project TF 193: Apple - Sustainable management of storage rots

Research project TF 199: Optimising the rate of establishment of controlled atmosphere (5/1) Bramley's Seedling stores to improve storage quality

Research project TF 201: Improving quality and reducing costs of Conference pear storage using SmartFreshTM

Research project TF 208: Improving quality and extending the storage life of Braeburn and selected new apple varieties (Rubens, Opal and Envy) through improved storage strategies

Research project TF 221: Extending the marketing period of Gala apples, Phase 2: Orchard and storage management practices to optimise

Useful links

Apple crop walkers' guide

Apple Best Practice Guide

Tree Fruit Agronomists Handbook

Video: Webinar - A changing consumer landscape: What it means for fresh produce?

Watch the recording of the online Tree Fruit Technical Day 2021